Features/ Tg-explains/ Why Electric Vehicles Might Not Be the Silver Bullet for Indian Transportation

Why Electric Vehicles Might Not Be the Silver Bullet for Indian Transportation

Electric vehicles (EVs) are undoubtedly the future of transportation according to many manufacturers in India, but are they the one-size-fits-all solution for India's mobility needs? While EVs offer a sustainable alternative to conventional fuel-based vehicles, their practicality for personal transportation in the Indian context needs further examination. Here’s what stands in the way of EVs being the silver bullet for India:


Range Anxiety and Charging Infrastructure: A 2021 McKinsey report highlights that "despite significant progress, charging infrastructure is still sparse in most countries, especially outside major cities". This is echoed in a recent study by the Electric Vehicle Association of India (EVEA)  which found that India has only "4,618 public charging stations for over 1 million electric vehicles on the road" as of December 2023.  Long-distance travel remains a concern for EV owners with limited charging stations on highways. Even in cities, reliable and accessible public charging points are scarce. This can lead to "range anxiety" – the fear of running out of battery power before reaching a charging station.

High upfront costs: EVs currently carry a steeper price tag compared to their internal combustion engine (ICE) counterparts. A report by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) found that EVs are "typically 30-40% more expensive than their equivalent ICE vehicles".  This significant price difference can be a deterrent for a large segment of the Indian car market that is budget-conscious. A 2023 study by CRISIL  further emphasizes this point, stating that "high acquisition cost remains a key barrier to mass adoption of EVs in India". Government subsidies can help bridge this gap, but their effectiveness needs long-term evaluation, especially when considering the pace of technological advancements that can bring down battery costs.

Electricity Grid Constraints: A study by NITI Aayog states that India's electricity grid "needs significant upgradation to handle the increased load from electric vehicles". Widespread EV adoption will put immense pressure on the already strained power grid, potentially leading to blackouts or the need for expensive grid upgrades. A report by India Ratings and Research (Ind-Ra) estimates that India's power sector will require an investment of "around $250 billion by 2040 to meet the charging infrastructure needs of EVs".

Battery Recycling and Disposal: The environmental impact of  EVs goes beyond tailpipe emissions.  Mining the materials for Lithium-ion batteries and their disposal are emerging concerns. A recent study by  Toxics Link found that "India lacks a robust mechanism for lithium-ion battery waste management," raising concerns about potential environmental damage from improper disposal. A well-developed and sustainable battery recycling infrastructure is essential to ensure the long-term viability of EVs.


The Future of Mobility Needs to be Multi-pronged

While EVs are a crucial step towards sustainable transportation, they might not be the sole answer for personal mobility in India. A mix of solutions, including:

Hybrid Vehicles: These combine electric motors with gasoline engines, offering a balance between range and eco-friendliness.

Public Transport Electrification: Electrifying public transport systems like buses and trains can significantly reduce emissions and provide a cleaner commute for a larger population.

Focus on Biofuels: Bioethanol and biodiesel derived from renewable sources can be a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels for internal combustion engines.

India's mobility future needs to be a well-rounded strategy that considers factors like infrastructure development, alternative fuel sources, and battery technology advancements. EVs are a part of the solution, but not the only one.

TopGear Magazine July 2024